BPS 1

BSE SEM image of BGA microsection.

BPS 2

The entire interface fractured between the Ni-Sn intermetallic layer and the Ni-P of the ENIG board pad. This is the corner ball where warpage strains are at maximum typically.

BPS 3

Evidence of “hyper-etching” of the Ni-P grain boundaries, which is a symptom of black-pad-syndrome.

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